As a result, while case study research has evolved to be a pragmatic, flexible research approach, the variation in definition, application, validity, and purposefulness can create a confusing platform for its use.
Flexibility of the research design A defining characteristic of qualitative research is the flexibility built into the research design. These types of case study include the following: The data may then be organized around certain topics, key themes or central questions, and finally the data need to be examined to see how far they fit or fail to fit the expected categories ibid.
MAYRING a,  even speaks of "a superficial analysis without respecting latent contents and contexts, working with simplifying and distorting quantification. Cases are selected based on the research purpose and question, and for what they could reveal about the phenomenon or topic of interest.
The main method of ethnographic research is thorough observation, where the researcher observes study participants over an extended period of time within the participants' own environment. The so-called inter-coder reliability shows to what extent different coders agree in the coding of the same text and intra-coder reliability explains how stable the coding of one coder is.
Qualitative researchers analyze their outcomes from the inside out, organizing and deriving meaning from the data by way of the data itself. Because each interview tends to be unique with no predetermined set of questions asked of all respondents, it is usually more difficult to analyze unstructured interview data, especially when synthesizing across respondents.
This distinction accentuates the need for researchers to describe the particular underpinning methodology adopted and to clarify the alignment of chosen methods used with their philosophical assumptions and their chosen approach. Use of multiple sources of evidence; creation of a case study database; maintaining a chain of evidence.
The diversity of approaches subsequently adds diversity to definition and description. Therefore, qualitative methods are often used when the field of research is yet not well understood or unknown and aim at generating new hypotheses and theories, while quantitative methods are frequently used for testing hypotheses and evaluating theories cf.
As a matter of fact, this notion of triangulation to argue in favor of an integration of qualitative and quantitative methods is not limited to content analysis but has been raised by many researchers cf. Not surprisingly, the unique nature o f qualitative inquiry is characterized by a distinctive set of attributes, all of which impact the design of qualitative research one way or the other.
The steps of inductive category development are displayed in Figure 2. As a matter of fact, it is this kind of systematics what distinguishes content analysis from more interpretive, hermeneutic processing of text material MAYRING,p.
Key contributors to case study research and major contextual influences on its evolution are included. An interpretative position views reality as multiple and subjective, based on meanings and understanding. Post-positivism is evident in how he defines "case study as a form of empirical inquiry" p.
Messy analysis and inductive approach Without a doubt, qualitative research analysis is messy. Teaching case studies need not adhere strictly to the use of evidence, as they can be manipulated to satisfy educational needs.
STAKE recommends vignettes—episodes of storytelling—to illustrate aspects of the case and thick descriptions to convey findings, a further illustration of his constructivist and interpretivist approach to case study research.
Since arguments concerning the content are judged to be more important than methodical issues in qualitative analysis, validity takes priority over reliability MAYRING,p.
Knowledge generated from the research process is relative to the time and context of the study and the researcher is interactive and participates in the study. They will have to gather information that may help them in solving such issues. Researcher-as-instrument Along with the emphases on context, meaning, and the potential for researcher subjectivity, qualitative research is distinguished by the fact it places the researcher at the center of the data-gathering phase and, indeed, the researcher is the instrument by which information is collected.
At this level, qualitative research involves an interpretive, naturalistic approach to the world. Categories in the center of analysis: Some of the primary methods that would be used included interviews, surveys, focus groups, observations and in some cases use field trials.
Nevertheless, Aristotle's incorrect view of gravity had dominated scientific inquiry for nearly two thousand years before it was falsified.
Achieving accuracy in the data collection process is, like all aspects of qualitative research, a nuanced and often difficult mission.
According to GILLHAMthe "essence of content analysis is identifying substantive statements—statements that really say something" p. That is why the procedures need to be tested in a pilot study.
Researcher-as-instrument Along with the emphases on context, meaning, and the potential for researcher subjectivity, qualitative research is distinguished by the fact it places the researcher at the center of the data-gathering phase and, indeed, the researcher is the instrument by which information is collected.Researchers conduct qualitative research because they acknowledge the human condition and want to learn more, and think differently, about a research issue than what is usual from mostly numerical quantitative survey research data.
Not surprisingly, the unique nature of qualitative inquiry is characterized by a distinctive set of attributes, all of which impact the design. Volume 7, No. 1, Art. 21 – January The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research.
Florian Kohlbacher. Abstract: This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) interpretation method in case study research.
First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly. Qualitative research methods could help us to improve our understanding of medicine. Rather than thinking of qualitative and quantitative strategies as incompatible, they should be seen as complementary.
Key reporting guidelines, shaded green, are displayed first. Show the most recently added records first. 1; Standards for reporting qualitative research: a synthesis of recommendations.
2(14) A case study is expected to capture the complexity of a single case, and the methodology which enables this has developed within the social sciences. One of the 10 unique attributes of qualitative research is the “absence of truth.” This refers to the idea that the highly contextual and social constructionist nature of qualitative research renders data that is, not absolute “truth” but, useful knowledge that is the matter of the researcher’s own subjective interpretation.
For all these reasons –.Download